UP Board Class 10 English Grammar -Mode of Creative Writing

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UP Board Class 10 English Grammar -Mode of Creative Writing

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing are part of UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English. Here we have given UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing.

Board UP Board
Class Class 10
Subject English
Chapter English Grammar
Chapter Name Mode of Creative Writing
Category UP Board Solutions

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing

Section-C
‘Mode of Creative Writing’
सृजनात्मक लेखन शैली

Introduction
Creative writing से हमारा अभिप्राय उन सब attempts से है जिनका purpose साधारण रूप से information के convey ही नहीं करना होता बल्कि विचारों, अनुभूतियों एवं भावनाओं को express करना होता है।

वास्तव में, “Creative writing is the process of inventing or rather presenting your thoughts in an appealing way.” लेखक critically सोचता है और कुछ ज्ञान को किसी different और original shape में ढालता है।

Objectives
प्रत्येक writing का एक purpose होता है और यह reader को ध्यान में रखकर की जाती है। इसे एक clear beginning, middle और एक end के क्रम में लिखा जाता है। उचित vocabulary का चयन, language व style का भली प्रकार से use किया जाता है।

Key Points of Creative Writing
Creative writing को अच्छी प्रकार से समझने के लिए निम्न Key Points को जानना चाहिए

  • The Beginning : Creative writing की शुरुआत तब होती है जब writer स्वयं से पूछता है। कि “मैं किसी particular feeling, image, experience या memory से क्या create कर सकता हूँ?
  • The Purpose : Creative writing writer की invent, explore या share करने की तीव्र इच्छा को जगाती है। यह उसकी Creative soul को सन्तुष्ट करती है।
  • The Audience/Reader : आरम्भ में किसी specific audience की जानकारी नहीं होती और प्रत्येक situation different होती है यद्यपि, यदि एक पूर्ण रचना व्यापक अर्थ लिए हो तो इससे बहुत से readers प्रभावित होते है और इसका उन सबके लिए अलग-अलग अर्थ होता है।
  • The Style : Writer का अपना एक unique style होता है। Writer अपने style से अपने विचार प्रस्तुत करता है और ये readers को अपनी तरह से प्रभावित करते हैं।

‘Essay Writing’

The word essay’ का अर्थ है, “to make an attempt.” इसलिए essay एक attempt (प्रयास) या try है जो विद्यार्थियों द्वारा एक विषय पर सरल और सही शब्दों में क्रमबद्ध अपने विचारों की अभिव्यक्ति की दृष्टि से किया जाता है।

Essay writing एक art है जिसकी सहायता से लेखक क्रमबद्ध ढंग से लिखकर अपने विचारों की अभिव्यक्ति मौलिक रूप में कर सकते हैं। परीक्षा में अच्छे अंक प्राप्त करने के लिए विद्यार्थियों में इस कला का विकास होना आवश्यक है।

Main Elements of Essay Writing
Essay writing के दो आवश्यक तत्त्व thought (विचार) और language (भाषा) हैं।
Essay writing को प्रारम्भ करने वाले को दोनों ही चीजों में कठिनाई आती है। जब एक विषय पर उसे Essay लिखने के लिए कहा जाता है तो वह हक्का-बक्का रह जाती है और विषय पर उसे कोई thoughts नहीं आते। साथ ही उसका शब्द-ज्ञान इतना सीमित होता है कि वह अपने विचारों और भावों को व्यक्त नहीं कर सकता।

Classification of Essays
Essays को मुख्य चार श्रेणियों में बाँटा जा सकता है-

  1. Narrative
  2. Descriptive
  3. Reflective
  4. Imaginative
  • Narrative Essays: Essays जिसमें एक घटना या घटनाओं (काल्पनिक और वास्तविक) का वर्णन किया जाता है उन्हें Narrative Essays कहा जाता है; जैसे-एक मैच, मेले, यात्रा, दुर्घटना, वीरों की आत्मकथा, महाकाव्य आदि की कहानियों का वर्णन आदि।
  • Descriptive Essays : Essays जिनमें person, place या वस्तु का वर्णन करने का प्रयास किया जाता है उन्हें Descriptive Essays कहा जाता है। इनका क्षेत्र बहुतै विस्तृत है; जैसे-दिल्ली, कोलकाता, मकान, गाँव, डाकिया, सिपाही, घोड़ा, गाय, कार, मोबाइल आदि का वर्णन आदि।
  • Reflective Essays : Essays जिनमें किसी विषय, जो भावों से जुड़ा हो, पर विचारों का गहन चिन्तन किया जाता है, उन्हें Reflective Essays कहा जाता है; जैसे-ईमानदारी, न्याय, अच्छाई आदि का वर्णन आदि।
  • Imaginative Essays : ऐसे Essays पूर्णतया कल्पना पर आधारित होते हैं। इस तरह के Essays में लेखक को काल्पनिक रूप में स्वयं को ऐसी स्थिति में रखना होता है जिसका उसे कोई वास्तविक अनुभव नहीं होता। ऐसे विषय; जैसे-If I were a king’ अथवा ‘The autobiography of a rupee coin’ आदि Imaginative Essays के उदाहरण हैं।

How to Write an Essay
Examination essays, ordinary essays से भिन्न होते हैं। पहले प्रकार के essay समय की कमी और भावनात्मक दबाव में लिखे जाते हैं। किन्तु दोनों ही स्थितियों में लिखने वाले को दिए गए essay की outline (रूपरेखा) तैयार करनी होती है और essay को उचित प्रकार से लिखने से पहले outline को revise करना होता है।

Reading : विषय से सम्बन्धित जानकारी के अभाव में एक good essay लिखना कठिन होता है। विषय से सम्बन्धित जानकारी अधिकाधिक reading से मिलती हैं। इसलिए विद्यार्थियों को चाहिए कि वे अच्छी पुस्तकों व समाचार पत्रों को पढ़े और स्वयं को mentally alert और well equipped रखें। Bacon said, “ Reading maketh a full man”.

इसलिए यदि आप अच्छा essay लिखना चाहते हैं तो आपको reading की आदत डालनी चाहिए। Reading का अर्थ केवल stories books पढ़ना ही नहीं है अपितु history, travel, biography और science की अच्छी पुस्तकें पढ़ना भी है। ऐसा करने से आप एक ‘Fullman’ बन जाते हो और एक ‘Fullman’ के पास अधिकतर विषयों पर कहने के लिए बहुत कुछ होता है।

Observation : समस्त ज्ञान केवल books को पढ़ने से ही नहीं मिलता। हम अपने चारों ओर के जीवन से भी बहुत कुछ सीख सकते हैं। इसके लिए हमें अपनी आँखों और कानों को खुला रखना चाहिए
और स्वयं के अनुभव से सीखना चाहिए।

Conversation : Books को men and women लिखते हैं और यदि हम उनके लिखे से सीख सकते हैं तो हम उनके कहे से भी बहुत कुछ सीख सकते हैं। हमें लोगों के वार्तालाप को सुनना चहिए
और उनकी जानकारी के विषय पर उनसे बातचीत करनी चाहिए। अपने मित्रों के साथ अपनी पसन्द के विषयों पर बातचीत करनी चाहिए। इस प्रकार से भी आप बहुत कुछ सीख सकते हैं। लेखक पढ़कर, निरीक्षण कर व.लोगों से बातचीत करके अपने मस्तिष्क को विचारों और ज्ञान से समृद्ध करता है।

Parts of an Essay
हमें एक essay को तीन parts में divide कर सकते हैं-The Introduction, the Body of the Essay, and the Conclusion.

  • The Introduction : प्रत्येक essay की एक impressive या significant beginning होती है जिसमें essay का scope या subject स्पष्ट रूप से परिभाषित होता है। इस भाग को introduction के नाम से जाना जाता है। Introduction में एक definition या एक quotation, proverb, very short story या विषय को छूता general remark होता है। Introduction संक्षिप्त होना चाहिए।
  • The Body of the Essay : Essay के अगले भाग, जो सभी पहलूओं से विषय का वर्णन करता : है, को the body of the essay कहा जाता है। इसमें विभिन्न विचारों को अलग-अलग paragraphs में बाँटा जाता है। ये विचार आपस में logically linked होते हैं। Paragraphs में विचारों के repetition या confusion से बचना चाहिए। विचारों को simple और direct manner में व्यक्त करना चाहिए। ऊँचे प्रवाह व शब्दाडम्बरयुक्त भाषा से बचना चाहिए।
  • The Conclusion : जिस प्रकार essay का introduction रूचिकर होना चाहिए उसी प्रकार essay का conclusion संतोषजनक होना चाहिए। एक असंगत ending पूरे essay के प्रभाव को खराब कर सकती है। Conclusion या ending भी introduction की तरह ही बहुत लम्बी नहीं होनी चाहिए।

Some Practical Hints for Essay Writing

    1. विषय पर चिन्तन कर इसे समझने का प्रयत्न करना चाहिए।
    2. विषय सम्बन्धित समस्त जानकारी या विचारों को क्रमांक देकर points में लिख लेना चाहिए।
    3. इन points को उचित headings के under समूहों में वर्गीकृत कर लेना चाहिए।
  1. एक brief और attractive introduction सोच लेनी चाहिए।
  2. Essay की body को paragraphs में विभाजित कर उचित system और proportion में लिखना चाहिए।
  3. कभी भी अपने विषय से भटकना नहीं चाहिए और tenses का भी सही प्रयोग करना चाहिए।
  4. Conclusion को effective व satisfying बनाना चाहिए।
  5. Essay writing के समय punctuation marks, spellings और capital letters का सही प्रयोग करने का ध्यान रखना चाहिए।
  6. एक simple, concise, clear, direct और natural style में essay को लिखना चाहिए। इसमें पहले से लिखे को repeat नहीं करना चाहिए।
  7. समाप्त करने से पहले अपने essay को एक बार revise जरूर कर लेना चाहिए।

Note : Introduction, body व conclusion ये तीनों केवल guide points हैं। इन्हें अपने essay में लिखना अनिवार्य नहीं है।
विद्यार्थियों के अवलोकनार्थ सभी प्रकार के essay के specimen नीचे दिए जा रहे हैं।

1.Specimen of a Narrative Essay:
‘A Street Quarrel’

It was Sunday afternoon. I was reading a novel of Munshi Prem Chand. I was completely lost in reading the novel. All of a sudden, shouting’s and wailing’s started in the neighhourbood, and people came running out of their houses.

I jumped up from my chair, placed the book aside and went out.At first I could not make out as to what had actually happened. Many men and women of our neighborhood were trying to talk at one and the same time. At last I pulled aside a neighbor and asked him the cause of this turmoil.He told me that two of our neighbors Kishore and Sunder had come to blows. The trouble had started with children. A dozen of them were playing cricket in the street. There was an argument between the children. One of them beat up the other. The beaten child went weeping to his mother who stormed into the house of aggressor. Their husbands also joined the fray. Kishore had his nose broken while Sunder’s wife lost two teeth. In the free-for-all two neighbors also got hurt. The crowd watched the fight without trying to intervene.

As soon as the police arrived at the scene, the crowd melted away. Nobody was prepared to tell the whole story to the police. I had to volunteer myself to tell the facts to the best of my knowledge.

The police arrested four persons for disturbing the peace. They were marched to the police station and locked up for the night. The peace talks started as soon as the police went away. By next noon the arrested persons were back home shaking hands and promising to be good neighbor once again.

2. Specimen of a Descriptive Essay:
An Indian Farmer

Farming is one of oldest professions in India. Farmers, even today, are about sixty per cent of the total population of our country. They are the back-bone of nation. They not only provide food for the people but also send their children to army to defend our borders against foreign aggression.

The Indian farmer has not, however changed much with the change of times. Except the big and well-to-do farmers, the average farmer continues to use old methods and implements of farming. The same types of plough or pair of oxen, used two thousand years ago, continue to be in use today. Tractors, tube wells, and fertilizers are used only by a very few farmers—not exceeding twenty five per cent in any case. As a result poverty continues, and we are not able to feed the total population when the monsoon fails. We have to import food grains worth crores.

The life of an Indian farmer continues to be hard. He rises early. He works on the field in extreme heat and cold. There is hardly any change of routine in his life. Nor is there any change possible in the near future. Among the more well to do, however, some change for the better is noticeable. By mechanizing farming they have reduced human labor. The average yield has increased and that means more wealth. Wealth has succeeded in raising the political and social status of the farmers. Their standard of living has risen. Their children are now much better fed, clothed and educated.

3. A Specimen of Reflective Essay:
Patriotism

Patriotism means the love for one’s own country. The love for one’s country is higher than all other types of love. A patriot commands for greater respect than a man having wealth of power. There is no selfishness in his love. He is always ready to sacrifice everything for his country.

Patriots occupy a very high place in the history of a nation. Their lives and achievements make a nation strong. They inspire the coming generations too. Men like Robert Bruce, Garibaldi, Gandhi ji, Nehru, Patel and Subhash are known all over the world. They are honored and respected by all.

How should we honor our patriots? They cannot be truly honored by building memorials and delivering lectures alone. The correct way is to understand their teaching and follow them earnestly in our lives. The interest of the country should be placed above every other interest.

It is not wealth that makes a country great. Patriotism of her citizens alone can determine her fate. This world has seen many big empires like the Chinese, the Persian, the Mauriyan and the British. These have risen and fallen. These nations rose when selfishness replaced patriotism. We Indians should, therefore, keep this flame of patriotism burning brightly in our hearts.

4. A Specimen of Imaginative Essays:
If I were the Prime Minister of India

My heart aches when I see the conditions in India, Poverty, disease, corruption, ignorance surround our people. Even after sixty five years of freedom we are still in much the same condition. I do not know what I do. I am pained by all these things. Being a child I do not as yet know the solutions of our many problems. I feel that the government of a country can do a lot to improve the lot of its people. So I want to be at the head of the government. I wish I were the Prime Minister of India! What would I do then?

The job of a Prime Minister is really tough. I would, therefore rise above the narrow bonds of self-interest. I would adhere to certain principles in my planning. There would be little scope for corruption, favoritism and nepotism. I would work for the country rather than for any party. The basic problem of our country is our dependence on other nations even for essential commodities. The first thing that I would therefore do will be to increase production and arrange for proper distribution of essential things. The production, it is generally believed, these days increases, not on the farms or in the factories but on the paper alone. We bring revolutions sometimes green, sometimes white, but they are no better than dreams. They vanish at the first touch of reality.

I shall do my best to restore merit to its proper place. If the evils of bribery and black market are eradicated most of the problems will be automatically solved but I believe that heavy punishments to law breakers are still the need of the hour. Lethargy is our national weakness. Our people, young and old, do not want to work. They only want to enjoy holidays. They have forgotten the golden maxim ‘work is worship’. I shall take steps to ensure that everybody does his due share of work. Work will be provided for the unemployed. Promotions and awards will be based on individual merit without any fear or favor. For this purpose, only honest and devoted workers will be given the key posts.

Lastly the present system of education will be overhauled. Education will be made more practical and more related to jobs than now. ‘It will be linked with practical life. My approach to all problems will be practical. I pray to God to grant me my wish!

‘Story Writing’

Story Writing सभी साहित्यिक रचनाओं में से सबसे पुराना है। यहाँ तक की जब मानव गुफाओं में रहता था तो उसने अवश्य ही लम्बी सर्दियों की रातें बिताने के लिए अपने बच्चों और औरतों को stories सुनाई होगी।

बाद में जब सभ्यता का विकास हुआ तो कहानियों को एक moral को उजागर करने अथवा एक रूचिकर घटना अथवा अनुभव को बताने के लिए लिखा जाने लगा। पंचतन्त्र की कहानियाँ ऐसी कहानियों के उदाहरण हैं जो जीवन के मौलिक अनुभवों पर आधारित हैं और जिनमें बुद्धि और व्यवहारिक कुशाग्रता का समावेश है।
कहानी को प्रभावशाली बनाने के लिए निम्न सुझावों को ध्यान में रखना आवश्यक है–

  1. Writer को कहानी के plot का clear idea होना चाहिए और उसे बिना इधर-उधर की बातें करते हुए एक सधे हुए introduction के साथ story की शुरुआत करनी चाहिए।
  2. Story को समान रूप से develop करना चाहिए और इसके विभिन्न अंशों का विस्तार मध्यम लम्बाई का होना चाहिए। Writer को story के basic idea को ध्यान में रखते हुए story को लिखना चाहिए।
  3. जहाँ कहीं सम्भव हो dialogue या conversation का समावेश story में करना चाहिए किन्तु यह natural (स्वाभाविक) होना चाहिए और story को आगे बढ़ाने में सहायक होना चाहिए।
  4. यदि एक Outline (रूपरेखा) दी गई हो तो लेखक को घटनाओं व Outline में दिए गए घटनाक्रम का पालन करना चाहिए। किसी भी बिन्दु को छोड़ना नहीं चाहिए। किसी भी तरह के missing link को writer को पूरा कर देना चाहिए।
  5. Heading या Title का चयन बहुत ही ध्यान से करना चाहिए। एक प्रचलित proverb या घटना के main character को story के heading या title के रूप में चुनना चाहिए।
  6. कहानी को जहाँ तक हो सके past tense में ही लिखना चाहिए और ऐसी भाषा का प्रयोग करना चाहिए जो सरल व व्याकरण की दृष्टि से सही हो।

उपरोक्त बातों को ध्यान में रखकर आप एक अच्छी कहानी लिख सकते हैं। विद्यार्थियों के अवलोकनार्थ कुछ कहानियों की Outlines को उनके develop रूप में नीचे दिया जा रहा है
(1) Outline : A lion lies sleeping in a forest—a mouse run across his body—the lion catches it in his paw—the mouse prays for life—the lion spares it—later the lion is caught in a hunter net—the mouse nibbles at the net and the lion escapes.

(Complete Story)

The Lion and the Mouse

Once a lion was sleeping in a thick forest. Nearby there was a small hole where a mouse lived. He was a naughty but gentle mouse. It came out of the hole and began to move softly round the sleeping lion. Suddenly it went up the sleeping lion. It started running on his back and head.

The lion woke up with a stare and got angry. He caught it in his paw. He threatened to kill it, he said, “You idiot : you’ll pay for it with your life.” The mouse trembled in fear. It humbly said, “Sir, I am only an humble mouse. If you kill me, it well do you no good. If you spare my life, I may be of some help to you some day. Please forgive me, sir.” The lion laughed at his words. He let it go.

Many months passed. A hunter came to the forest. He cast a strong net. The lion was caught in the net. He roared again, and again, but could not get out of the net.

The mouse heard the lion’s roar. It came running out of its hole. Silently it began to cut the ropes. It freed the lion very soon. He patted the humble mouse in gratefulness, and went away to the dark forest.

Moral : Do good, have god.
(2) Outline : Robert Bruce, King of Scotland—defeated again and again—the English win–the king is sad and gloomy inside a cave—sees a spider climbing each time it reaches near the roof, it falls down—tries again and again-gets success—the king learns a lesson-tries and wins.

(Complete Story)

King Bruce and the Spider

Many centuries ago there lived a king in Scotland. He was noble and full of love for his country. He wanted to free Scotland from the yoke of England. England and Scotland were, therefore, constantly at war.

Robert Bruce gathered a big army and fought against the English six times. But every time he was defeated by the English army. He had a narrow escape. His sixth defeat broke his heart. He hid himself in a dark and deep cave. Even the sun’s rays could not reach there. He decided never to fight again. He wished to spend the rest of his days in the dark cave.

One day, the king was sadly pondering over his defeats. His eyes fell upon a spider. It was trying to reach the high ceiling. It fell down to the floor. After a short while it tried again. But it fell down once again. Every time it fell, it started climbing all over again. It tried seven times. King Bruce watched the spider with keen eyes. The spider made the last attempt to reach its goal. And this time it was successful. The king felt ashamed of himself. He rose with a new determination. The spider had taught him a lesson “Never say die”, but “Try, try again”. He gathered a large army once again. He gave a good beating to the English this time. He freed his country at last.

Moral : “Try, try, again and win.”
(3) Outline : Dispute between the Sun and the wind who is stronger? Wind blows traveler clasps his coat tighter–sun shines-traveler takes off coat-conclusion.

(Complete Story)

The Sun and the Wind

Once a dispute arose between the Sun and the wind. The Sun said, “I am the king of the sky, I melt the snow on the hills. I dry up the rivers. I bring rain to the thirsty earth.” The wind laughed loudly and replied, “I am far stronger than you are. I uproot trees. I can destroy big buildings in the twinkling of an eye.” When they were quarreling, a lonely person was walking slowly on a road. He had a thick woolen coat on. The sun smiled and said to the wind, “Let us try our strength on-this man. Whosoever makes him take off his coat, will be the winner. You can try your strength on him first.” The wind agreed at once. It attacked the man with its full strength. The man closed his coat still tighter. When the wind blew faster, the man sat down under a rock. The wind failed in its attempt.

Now the Sun came gently out of the clouds. The traveler got up and started walking. The Sun became brighter and warmer. The traveler felt hot. He took off his coat and put it on his shoulder. The Sun thus won the dispute.

Moral : “Gentleness is more powerful than Force.”
(4) Outline : A slave runs from a cruel master-meets a lion in a forest-pulls out a thorn from its paw-the slave is caught–ordered to be thrown before a hungry lion–the lion licks his hands–set free.

(Complete Story)

The Slave and the Lion

Once there lived a slave in the city of Rome. His master was very cruel. He beat him mercilessly every day. The slave could not bear it and ran away. He knew that if he was caught he would be killed. He preferred death to his master’s cruelty.

When he was passing through the forest he came across a lion. It was rolling on earth in pain and striking its paw on the ground again and again. The slave went up to the lion and took out the thorn. The lion felt a great relief. It licked the hands of the slave and then went away. The servants of the slave’s master caught him after some time. He was taken back to the city of Rome. He was tried in a court. The judge ordered that he should be thrown before a hungry lion.

On the fixed day a crowd of people came out to see the spectacle. The slave was taken to the lion. The lion’s cage was opened. With a loud roar the lion sprang on the slave. It raised its paw to strike him down, but the paw never struck. The lion went down on its knees. It began to lick the slave’s hands. The crowd was surprised at this. It was the same lion as the slave had helped. The slave was called to explain the mystery. He told the whole story. He was at once set free.

Moral : “Kindness never goes unrewarded.”
(5) Outline : An ass carrying salt passes through a stream falls down—salt dissolves—burden becomes lighter— makes it a habit—the master sees through bring load of cotton—lies down in stream burden increases.

(Complete Story)

The Ass and His Load of Salt

Once there lived a shopkeeper in a village. He had a clever ass. One day he was bringing salt on the donkey. They had to cross a stream on the way. When the ass entered the stream, it fell down and the salt was dissolved in water. When the ass got up, it felt lighter. It was very happy.

The next day the shopkeeper again brought salt. This time the ass fell down knowingly and much of the salt was dissolved in water. The shopkeeper got angry at this: He decided to teach the ass a lesson.

The next day he loaded the ass with cotton. As usual the ass fell down in mid-stream. It had hoped that its burden would be reduced. But to the surprise of the ass, the burden had much increased this time. It could hardly move, but the master beat it with his stick to make it run faster. The ass came to the conclusion that over-cleverness does not always pay.

Moral : “Over-cleverness does not pay.”
(6) Outline : A wolf drinking water—a young lamb also drinking water at a lower level of the brook wolf hungry-wants to eat the lamb—accuses him of abusing, of making the water muddy-kills the lamb.

(Complete Story)

The Wolf and the Lamb

Once there lived a wolf in a forest. It was very clever and bad tempered. It went to a brook to drink water. When it was drinking water, it saw a young lamb also drinking water at a short distance. It wanted to kill the lamb. It said to the young lamb. “You naughty chap, you abused me last year. For this I am going to eat you up now.” The lamb humbly replied, “Sir, I was not even born last year, I am only eight months old. How could I insult your majesty?” The wolf spoke angrily, “Why are you making the water dirty?” The lamb said humbly, “Sir, the water is flowing from you to me. How can I make the water dirty?” The wolf jumped at the poor lamb saying, “You rascal! You do not know how to behave.” It tore the lamb into pieces and ate it up in no time.

Moral : “Might is right.”

Letter Writing

Letter writing हमारे जीवन का एक महत्त्वपूर्ण भाग है। यह Personal और Professional दोनों ही life में आवश्यक है। यह केवल एक duty नहीं अपितु एक pleasure भी है। कुछ महान् writers और poets महान letter writer भी थे। इसलिए letter writing के art को सीखना ही आवश्यक नही अपितु इसकी निरन्तर practice भी आवश्यक है।

Some General Instructions for Letters writing

  1. Letters सदैव एक simple और direct manner में लिखे जाने चाहिए। पत्र में इधर-उधर की बातें नहीं लिखनी चाहिए।
  2. Letters संक्षिप्त होने चाहिए, किन्तु इनमें writer के विचार अथवा उद्देश्य स्पष्ट होने चाहिए।
  3. हमें लिखे जाने वाले व्यक्ति को ध्यान में रखते हुए letter लिखना चाहिए।
  4. Letters में अशिष्ट और कठोर भाषा का प्रयोग नहीं करना चाहिए।
  5. विभिन्न विचारों को अलग-अलग paragraphs में व्यक्त करना चाहिए और mix नहीं करना चाहिए।

स्पष्टता (Clarity), संक्षिप्तता (Conciseness) और विनम्रता (Sincerity) एक अच्छे पत्र के तीन आवश्यक तत्व हैं।

Types of Letters
पत्र दो प्रकार के होते हैं

1. Informal Letters ( अनौपचारिक पत्र) : ये पत्र अपने सगे सम्बन्धियों, रिश्तेदारों, मित्रों और परिचितों को लिखे जाते हैं। इन्हें Personal/ Private Letters भी कहा जाता है।
2. Formal Letters (औपचारिक पत्र) : यह एक प्रकार का प्रार्थना-पत्र या सूचना-पत्र होता है। जिसके माध्यम से प्रार्थना, आवेदन, व्यावसायिक सूचना, पूछताछ अथवा एक प्रकार का निमंत्रण आदि भेजा जाता है। ये पत्र अधिकारी या व्यापारी वर्ग को लिखे जाते हैं।
यद्यपि प्रत्येक Letter की अपनी कुछ विशेषताएँ होती हैं फिर भी सभी पत्रों में एक चीज common होती हैं। प्रत्येक पत्र को निम्न भागों में बाँटा जा सकता है

(A) The Heading (शीर्षक)
(B) The Salutation (सम्बोधन)
(C) The Body (विषय-वस्तु)
(D) The Subscription/End (अन्त)
(E) The Signature (हस्ताक्षर)
(F) The Superscription (पता)

Parts of Letter

  • (A) The Heading (शीर्षक) : इसमें लिखने वाले का address और letter लिखे जाने की date व day होता है। इसे पृष्ठ के बाईं ओर सबसे ऊपर लिखा पता है जिसके नीचे date दी जाती है; जैसे
    183B, Anandpuri,
    Railway Road,
    Meerut-250002
    March 30, 2014
    Date को सदैव March 30, 2016 अथवा 30th March, 2016 लिखना चाहिए न कि 30.03.2016। ऊपर लिखे गए address में दिए गए punctuation को सावधानीपूर्वक पढ़कर सदैव अनुकरण करना चाहिए।
  • (B) The Salutation ( सम्बोधन ) : सम्बोधन या अभिवादन को पृष्ठ के बाईं ओर कुछ नीचे लिखना चाहिए। इसे personal letters में लिखे जाने वाले व्यक्ति के सम्बन्ध के अनुसार लिखा जाता है। व्यक्तिगत और व्यावसायिक पत्रों में इसे ‘Sir’ अथवा ‘Dear Sir लिखा जाता है।
    Personal Letters में यह निम्न प्रकार से लिखा जाता है
    (i) My dear Brother
    (ii) Dear Father
    (iii) Dear Anurag
    (iv) My dear Anju
  • (C) The Body(विषय-वस्तु): पत्र की Body इसका सबसे महत्त्वपूर्ण भाग होता है और writer के दिए जाने वाले सन्देश या सूचना को प्रेषित करता है। Letter की body का पहला शब्द सदैव एक capital letter से आरम्भ होता है। विचारों को स्पष्ट और सरल भाषा में व्यक्त किया जाना चाहिए। विभिन्न विचारों को अलग-अलग paragraph में लिखना चाहिए। प्रयुक्त भाषा विनम्र और व्याकरण की दृष्टि से सही होनी चाहिए। पत्रे मध्यम लम्बाई का होना चाहिए। पत्र में अनावश्यक बातों से बचना चाहिए। व्यक्ति पत्र को व्यक्तिगत सम्मान अथवा स्नेहपूर्ण शब्दों से समाप्त करना चाहिए ; जैसे-With best wishes अथवा ‘With kind regards’ आदि जैसे अवसरे की आवश्यकता हो।
  • (D) The Subscription( पत्र का अन्त ) : Subscription को पत्र का अन्त कहा जाता है। यह अन्तिम वाक्य के बाईं ओर लिखा जाता है। Salutation और Subscription का प्रयोग परम्परा और व्यवहार के परिणाम स्वरूप अनिवार्य और निश्चित है। इसलिए, विद्यार्थियों को salutation और subscription के निम्न समूहों को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़ना और याद करना चाहिए

UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing 1
UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing 2

Note: It should be remembered that there should be no apostrophe (‘) after ‘r’ in yours.

  • (E) Signature( हस्ताक्षर ): Signature सदैव subscription के नीचे किए जाते हैं; जैसे
    Yours sincerely
    Ajay Jain
  • (F) Superscription or Address (TAT) : Superscription या Address को साफ-साफ और पूरा लिखना चाहिए। जैसे
    UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing 3
    विद्यार्थियों के अवलोकनार्थ Informal व Formal letters के कुछ नमूने (Specimen) नीचे दिए जा रहे हैं।

Specimen of Informal Letters
(Personal/Private Letters)

1. Write a letter to your uncle thanking him for sending you a birthday present.

72, Vijay Nagar
W.K. Road, Meerut
June 19, 2016
My dear Uncle,
It was indeed, a pleasure to receive a beautiful wrist-watch from you as a birthday present. The job of my birthday party was increased many times by your wonderful gift, and I felt right on top of the world. I am thankful to you for your kind rememberence and love.
With love and respect.
Yours affectionately,
Nitin

2. Write a letter to your younger brother,advising him to avoid bad company in the school.

10, New Hostel,
Mall Road, Almora
January 15, 2016
My dear Mohit,
I have been told that you are no making any progress in your studies at your new school. Also you spend too much your time in useless gossips. I have been deeply pained to hear all these things.
Father has very high hopes pinned on you. He always says that you are the brightest child in the family. But your result card must have given him a rude shock.
Remember that this opportunity and all the facilities you enjoy now, will not last for ever. If you misuse your time and money in the company of bad friends, your life will be a constant misery. Therefore, avoid bad friends and use your books diligently.
With love,
Yours affectionately,
Rahul

Specimen of Formal Letters

1. Write a letter to the Health Officer of your city, bringing to his notice the insanitary conditions in the city.

221–G.T Road,
Karnal.
August 18, 2016
To,
The Health Officer
Municipal Committee,
Karnal.
Dear Sir,
I regret to bring to your notice that the sanitation of our city is deteriorating at an alarming pace. The drains in the streets are uncovered. These are not cleaned and flushed with water daily. The result is that foul smell is always coming out of these. Flies and mosquitoes are breeding fast. It is not surprising that many people are down with malaria and dysentery.
Heaps of refuse are lying near the vegetable market and in the main bazar. The sweepers are nowhere to be seen. The Sanitary Inspector is seen once in a blue moon, and pleads his inability to do anything in the matter.
The rainy season has already set in. You are requested to give a shake up to the sanitation department and get things moving. Otherwise we may soon be overtaken by an epidemic.
Yours faithfully
Ram Prakash.

2. Write a letter to the Editor, The Times of India, New Delhi, bringing to the notice of the authorities the bad lighting and insanitary conditions in your town.

TO,
The Editor,
The Times of India,
New Delhi,

Sir,
Kindly allow me to use your columns to ventilate the sufferings and grievances of the public of Khatauli town. For quite a long time the sanitation of this growing town has been in a very bad shape. The drains are uncovered and give out foul smell. There is no regular arrangement for clearing the drains. In some streets the drains are used as public latrines. There are big pools of water on both sides of the road which breed mosquitoes which in turn breed malaria.
The lighting along the main road is inadequate and has been the cause of a few serious accidents. In the side-streets there is hardly any lighting worth the name. Requests to the Municipal authorities in this connection have had no effect. I, therefore, appeal to the Govt. to take notice of these shortcomings before an epidemic breaks out.
Yours truly,
Om Prakash
51-Delhi Road
Khatauli
April 1, 2016

3. Write an application to the Principal of your school requesting him to grant you leave of absence for 5 days.

To,
The Principal
S.D. High School,
Meerut.

Sir,
Respectfully I beg to state that my mother is seriously ill. There is no one to look after her. I may, therefore, be granted leave of absence from the school for 5 days, that is, from 5th to 9th instant.
Thanking you,
Yours obediently,
Sunil Kumar,
XB, Roll No. 15
June 1, 2016

4. Write an application to the Principal of your school requesting him to issue the school leaving certificate.

To,
The Principal,
Saraswati Vidya Mandir,
Meerut.

Sir,
Respectfully, I beg to submit that my father has been transferred to Saharanpur and is to join there within a day or two. I, therefore, request you to issue my school leaving certificate.
I have returned all the library books and paid all the dues.
Thanking you.
Yours obediently,
Naman Gupta
X-A, Roll No. 22
June 15, 2016

Unseen Passage

Unseen Passage एक प्रकार का passage है जिसमें विद्यार्थियों द्वारा अवतरण के सारांश और अर्थ की समझ को परखने के लिए passage पर based प्रश्न पूछे जाते हैं।

How to Solve an Unseen Passage
किसी unseen passage पर आधारित प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखने के लिए छात्रों को निम्नलिखित सुझावों को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़ना चाहिए।

  1. General idea प्राप्त करने के लिए passage को शीघ्रता से एवं ठीक से पढ़ना चाहिए।
  2. Details को जानने के लिए इसे दोबारा कुछ धीमें से पढ़ना चाहिए।
  3. Questions को अच्छी तरह से पढ़ना चाहिए और answers के लिए passage के संगत/प्रासंगिक भाग की ओर मुड़कर उसे दोबारा पढ़ना चाहिए और तब उन्हें own words में सुन्दर और स्पष्ट लिखना चाहिए।
  4. उत्तर लिखते समय पूर्ण वाक्यों का प्रयोग करना चाहिए एवं उत्तर को पूछे गए प्रश्न के tense को ध्यान में रखते हुए उसी tense में देना चाहिए।
  5. उत्तर लिखने के बाद उन्हें revise कर लेना चाहिए। ऐसा करने से spelling और व्याकरण सम्बन्धी त्रुटियों से बचा जा सकता है।
  6. प्रश्नों के उत्तर लिखते समय अपने ज्ञान का प्रदर्शन आवश्यक नहीं है, बल्कि इस ओर ध्यान देना अत्यन्त आवश्यक है कि उत्तर सही और सुसंगत हो तथा पूर्णतः passage पर आधारित हो।।
  7. Suitable Title के चयन के लिए paragraph को ध्यानपूर्वक पढ़कर आपको अपने आप से यह question करना चाहिए। “What is this paragraph about?” इस question का answer स्वतः एक suitable-title सुझा देगा।
    ऐसा कहना गलत है कि suitable title सदैव paragraph के first या last sentence में होता है। यद्यपि शुरुआत व निष्कर्ष important होते हैं और आपको paragraph के substance को समझने में help कर सकते हैं। Title में words की संख्या के लिए कोई hard and fast rules नहीं हैं। यद्यपि आपको कम-से-कम शब्दों का use करना चाहिए क्योंकि एक brief title सदैव attractive होता है।
    Title में सभी important words को capital letters में शुरू करना चाहिए।
  8. यदि difficult words के meaning पूछे जाते हैं तो आपको इनके explanations English में देने चाहिए।

Note : यह आवश्यक नहीं है कि passage में आए हुए प्रत्येक शब्द का अर्थ ज्ञात हो, passage के भावार्थ तथा उसमें प्रयुक्त वाक्यांशों को समझने की कोशिश करनी चाहिए।

Some Practical Rules
सामान्यतः विद्यार्थी unseen passages की उपेक्षा कर उनसे बचते हैं जबकि ये ऐसे marks हैं जो न केवल उन्हें pass करने में सहायक होते हैं बल्कि उनके percentage को भी बेहतर हैं। नीचे कुछ प्रश्न और उनके उत्तर दिए जा रहें हैं जिनका अध्ययन passage पर आधारित प्रश्नों के उत्तर देने में सहायक सिद्ध होगा

(A) Yes/No Answer Type Questions :
नीचे दिए गए questions तथा उनके answers को ध्यान से पढ़िए-

Question 1.
Is he a farmer?
Answer :
Yes, he is a farmer or No, he is not a farmer.

Question 2 .
Does Rekha live abroad?
Answer :
Yes, she lives abroad or No, she doesn’t live abroad.

Question 3.
Did the hen lay some eggs?
Answer :
Yes, the hen laid some eggs or No, the hen didn’t lay some eggs.

Notes : उपरोक्त प्रकार के प्रश्नों का उत्तर दो प्रकार से मात्र छात्रों के अध्ययन के लिए दिया गया है। परीक्षिा में passage के आधार पर उन्हें एक ही प्रकार का उत्तर देना होगा।

(B) Wh-Type Questions

नीचे कॉलप ‘A’ के अन्तर्गत दिए गए questions तथा कॉलप ‘B’ के अन्तर्गत दिए गए उनके answers को ध्यान से पढ़िए
UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing 4

Note: Questions व answers के bold face में छपे words को ध्यान में रखकर यह जानने का प्रयत्न कीजिएा की कौन – सा Question-word (What, Which, Whose, Who, Where, When, why, How) कौन-सी information ज्ञात करने के लिए प्रयुक्त किया गया है। Question words द्वारा पूछी गयी जानकारी को answer में bold face में छपे शब्दों द्वारा दिया गया है। where का प्रयोग place, when का प्रयोग time, why का प्रयोग reason तथा how का प्रयोग manner या condition ज्ञात करने के लिए करते हैं। what का प्रयोग पहचान व व्यवसाय (profession) गनने के लिए करते हैं। who का प्रयोग name जानने के लिए किया जाता है।
विद्यार्थियों के अवलोकनार्थ कुछ unseen passages को उनके solutions (Answers) सहित नीचे दिया जा रहा है

Example 1
The men who were governing Athens summoned Socrates to appear before them and to stand his trial. His friends begged him to escape or to hide until the storm had blown over. But Socrates was not coward. He knew that he has done nothing wrong and that he had only taught what he believed to be just, true and honorable, and so he went to the Court. His clothes and shoes were dusty and travel-stained. But everyone knew that a noble heart beat under the shabby garments.

He made a powerful and dignified speech. He told the Athenians that they would gain nothing by taking away the last few years of his life, but that he was willing to die many deaths for what he believed to be right.

Answer the following questions :

  1. Who summoned Socrates and why?
  2. What did Socrates’ friends beg him?
  3. Why did Socrates go to the court?
  4. Why did people like Socrates?
  5. What did he tell to the Athenians?
  6. Pick out from the passage the word which means the same as ‘strong’.

Answer:

  1. The men who were governing Athens summoned Socrates to appear before them and to stand his trial.
  2. His friends begged him to escape or to hide until the storm had blown over.
  3. Socrates knew that he had done nothing wrong. So he went to the court.
  4. People loved Socrates because they knew that he was a noble heart.
  5. He told the Athenians that they would gain nothing by taking away the last few years of his life.
  6. 6. Powerful.

Example 2
One of the most remarkable things ever invented is wireless telegraphy, by means of which messages can be sent to all parts of the world without the aid · of wires. The man whom we must thank for this is Guglielmo Marconi. He was born in Italy in 1874, of an Italian father and an Irish mother. Even when he was a boy, Marconi loved to make experiments. One of these was to make a new kind of ink from the juice of some wild berries which grew near his home. At the time when Marconi was a school boy the important discovery was made that space in the universe is filled with a light substance called ether. This is made up of particles, so tiny that it can make its way through all matter, liquid, solid, or gas. When the rays of the sun pass through this ether, waves are created. These waves travel very speedily in every direction, lighting up everything upon which they fall.

Answer the following questions :

  1. What is wireless telegraphy?
  2. Who invented it and where was its inventor born?
  3. Describe any one experiment which Marconi made.
  4. What is ether? What happens when the rays of the sun pass through it?
  5. Explain the bold words in the passage.
  6. Give a suitable title to the above passage.

Answer:

  1. Wireless telegraphy is an invention of science by which messages can be sent to all parts of the world without the aid of wires.
  2. A scientist named Guglielmo Marconi invented it. He was born in Italy.
  3. One of his experiments was to make a new kind of ink from the juice of some wild berries which grew near his home.
  4. Ether is a light substance which fills the space. When the rays of the sun pass through it, waves are created and light up everything upon which they fall.
  5. (i) Without the aid of = without the help of
    (ii) So tiny = very small
  6. The suitable title for the above passage may be ‘Marconi : The Great Scientist.

Example 3
Man is made up of many qualities, both good and bad, and among the latter is anger. The nature of every human being is such that anything that gives offence to his sentiment, or goes against his principles, excites his anger. The evils which result from anger are many. Under its influence a man loses his power of reasoning and judgement. Not being able to retain control over himself when angry, he does not know what he is doing or saying. Under its influence a man puts off his balance that he forgets his duty towards his superiors and may even go to the extent of saying things which are extremely insulting to them. When anger gets the better of man, he is capable of committing the worst crimes, and there is nothing to be surprised if under its evil influence, he commits murder.

Answer the following questions :

  1. What happens to man’s important mental powers when he is angry?
  2. What excites the anger of every human being?
  3. Why does an angry man forget his duty towards his superiors and starts insulting them?
  4. What can be the worst that a man can do when anger gets full control over him?
  5. Give the opposite of the word ‘worst.

Answer :

  1. When a man is angry his important mental powers are vanished.
  2. Anything that gives offence to his sentiments, or goes against his principles, excites his anger
  3. An angry man forgets his duty towards his superiors and starts insulting them because under the influence of anger a man loses his power of reasoning and judgement.
  4. The worst that a man can do is that he is capable of committing the worst crime i.e., murder.
  5. Best.

Example 4
Holidays are meant for rest and recreation. The great strain put upon the brain of students by having to remain constantly engaged in studies during several months in the year makes it necessary for the brain to have some rest. This rest is afforded by the vacations. The holidays should, therefore, be utilize in such a manner as to give some rest to the body and mind, for which they are primarily intended. Recreations like walking in open air, rowing and playing some good game should be the daily pursuits. Paying visits to friends and relatives and thereby having an opportunity to see new places, is another pleasant occupation. Those who can afford, may quite profitably spend their time in visiting places of interest. Travelling broadens the mental outlook and increases knowledge.

Answer the following questions :

  1. What is the main purpose of providing holidays?
  2. What puts strain on the brain of students?
  3. What activities should be pursued during holidays?
  4. What are the advantages of travelling?
  5. Pick out from the passage the word which is similar to ‘entertainment.

Answer :

  1. The main purpose of providing holidays is to give rest and recreation.
  2. Constant studies put strain on the brain of students.
  3. Walking in open air, rowing and playing some good game should be pursued during holidays.
  4. Travelling broadens the mental outlook and increases knowledge.
  5. Recreation.

We hope the given UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing will help you. If you have any query regarding UP Board Solutions for Class 10 English Grammar Mode of Creative Writing, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

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