RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Immunity and Blood Groups

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RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Immunity and Blood Groups

Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 4 Immunity and Blood Groups

Textbook Questions Solved

I. Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1:
Cells which are used in immunity are  not present in which of the following?
(a) Bone marrow
(b) Liver
(c) Stomach
(d) Lymph node
Answer:
(c) Stomach

Question 2:
Plasma cell is a transformed form of which of the following?
(a) B-lymphocyte
(b) T-lymphocyte
(c) Neutrophil
(d) Both ‘a’ and ‘c’
Answer:
(a) B-lymphocyte

Question 3:
Antigenic determinants are present in  which of the following?
(a) Antigen
(b) IgG antibody
(c) 1gM antibody
(d) Plasma cells
Answer:
(a) Antigen

Question 4:
Which is the first produced antibody?
(a) IgG
(b) 1gM
(c) lgD
(d) IgG
Answer:
(b) 1gM

Question 5:
Which antibody is present in mother’s milk?
(a) lgG
(b) 1gM
(c) IgD
(d) IgA
Answer:
(d) IgA

Question 6:
Which of the following cells are  not present in blood?
(a) Red Blood Cells
(b) White Blood Cells
(c) B-lymphocytes
(d) Submucous cells
Answer:
(d) Submucous cells

Question 7:
Which of the following proposed blood groups?
(a) Louis Pasteur
(b) Carl Landsteiner
(c) Robert Coach
(d) Edward Jenner
Answer:
(b) Carl Landsteiner

Question 8:
Which is universal donor?
(a) A
(b) AB
(c) O
(d) B
Answer:
(c) O

Question 9:
What is the main cause of  Erythroblastosis foetalis?
(a) Blood transfusion in child
(b) Rh incompatibility
(c) ABO incompatibility
(d) Both ‘a’ and ‘c’
Answer:
(b) Rh incompatibility

Question 10:
Which of the following is used in autogenic transfusion?
(a) Self blood from the person
(h) Blood from a different person
(c) Blood from a sheep
(d) Both ‘a’ and ‘b’
Answer:
(a) Self blood from the person

Question 11:
Which of the following diseases is not a  result of carelessness during blood transfusion?
(a) Hepatitis B
(b) Malaria
(c) Hemolysis
(d) Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease
Answer:
(b) Malaria

Question 12:
Which of the following blood groups is the result of homozygous recessive gene interaction?
(a) A blood group
(b) B blood group
(c) O blood group
(d) AB blood group
Answer:
(c) O blood group

Question 13:
Which of the following is not among the  uses of inheritance of blood groups?
(a) Treatment of haemophilia
(b) Treatment of malaria
(c) Treatment of Dengue
(d) Both ‘b’ and ‘c’
Answer:
(d) Both ‘b’ and ‘c’

Question 14:
Which day is celebrated as Organ Donation Day in India?
(a) 13 September
(b) 13 August
(c) 13 May
(d) 13 June
Answer:
(b) 13 August

Question 15:
What is the number of persons (per 10 lakh) to  donate organs in India?
(a) 0.1
(b) 2.0
(c) 0.8
(d) 1.8
Answer:
(c) 0.8

Immunity and Blood Groups Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 16:
How many types of immunity are found in humans?
Answer:
There two types of immunity, viz. innate and acquired.

Question 17:
Antibodies are of how many types?
Answer:
Five

Question 18:
What should be the molecular  weight of antigen?
Answer:
6000 Dalton

Question 19:
Antibodies are which type of protein?
Answer:
Gamma globulin

Question 20:
Which antibody can even cross placenta to reach embryo?
Answer:
IgG

Question 21:
Which antibody is present on  mast cells?
Answer:
IgE

Question 22:
Which cells in blood facilitate exchange of gases?
Answer:
RBCs

Question 23:
Which scientist proposed grouping of blood?
Answer:
Carl Landsteiner

Question 24:
Which blood group is the universal donor?
Answer:
O blood group

Question 25:
Which blood group has both ‘A’ and ‘B’ antigens?
Answer:
AB blood group

Question 26:
What percentage of world  population has Rh positive blood?
Answer:
85%

Question 27:
Which Rh factor is the most important?
Answer:
Rh. D

Question 28:
Who conducted the first blood transfusion?
Answer:
Jean Baptist Dennis

Question 29:
What is autogenic transfusion?
Answer:
When self blood is used for transfusion, it is called autogenic transfusion.

Question 30:
Write the names of alleles which control blood groups?
Answer:
IA, IB and i

Question 31:
Organ Donation Day in celebrated on which date in India?
Answer:
13 August

Question 32:
Write the name of two persons who have pledged their organs for donation?
Answer:
Sadhvi Ritambhara and cricketer Gautam Gambhir

Immunity and Blood Groups Short Answer Type Questions

Question 33:
Define antibody.
Answer:
The protein which is produced by B-lymphocytes in response to an antigen and can specifically interact with the antigen is called antibody.

Question 34:
What are antigenic  determinants?
Answer:
The whole molecule of antigen does not interact with antibody rather some specific parts interact with antibody. These parts are called antigenic determinant or epitope.

Question 35:
What is the role of hinge in antibody?
Answer:
In most of the antibodies, the arms of Y-shape have flexible origins which are called hinge. Due to flexibility of hinge, the variable portion is able to react with molecules in antigen.

Question 36:
What is blood?
Answer:
Blood is a fluid tissue which is composed of plasma and blood cells. Blood is responsible for transport of substances in the body. It is also responsible for immunity in the body. Moreover, blood helps in maintaining temperature and in osmoregulation of body.

Question 37:
Explain ABO blood  grouping.
Answer:
Blood is divided into four groups on the basis of presence of antigen on the surface of RBCs. Based on this, blood groups are; A, B, AB and O. Antigen A is present in A blood group, B is present in B blood groups, both A and B are present in AB blood group, and no antigen is present in O blood group. These blood groups are further categorized as Rh positive or negative on the basis of presence or absence of Rh factor respectively.

Question 38:
What is Rh factor? What is its significance?
Answer:
This factor is a protein which is composed of about 417 amino acids. Blood groups are categorized as Rh positive or negative on the basis of presence or absence of Rh factor respectively. Rh factor matching is also important for blood transfusion. If Rh positive blood is transfused to an Rh negative person then recipient’s body produces IgG antibodies. These antibodies destroy RBCs by agglutination. This results in increased levels of bilirubin in blood which adveresely affects the liver and spleen. As a result, the person dies due to renal failure.

Question 39:
What is blood  transfusion? Explain.
Answer:
The method to transfer blood from one person to another’s circulatory system is called blood transfusion. The first blood transfusion was performed by a French doctor Jean Baptist Dennis in 1667. Many patients need blood transfusion, e.g, an accident victim, haemophilia patient, person undergoing surgery, etc. Blood transfusion helps in saving lives.

Question 40:
Write the precautions which need to be taken during blood transfusion.
Answer:
Following precautions need to be taken during blood transfusion:

  • Blood groups of donor and recipient must be matched.
  • Rh factor matching should be done.
  • Donor’s blood should be checked for presence of any infection.
  • Donated blood should be collected sterilized container.

Question 41:
Explain the need for organ  donation.
Answer:
Many patients are in need of organ to save their life. There is a huge mismatch in demand supply, as far as organ donation is concerned. Compared to world’s higher average, just 0.8 persons per ten lakh donate organs in India. Many people do not donate organs because of religious and psychological reasons. But organ donation can help in saving many lives. Hence, organ donation is highly important.

Question 42:
Explain the alleles of genes which are responsible for ABO grouping?
Answer:
There are three alleles which are responsible for ABO grouping, viz. IA,, IB, and i. Antigens on RBCs are formed by these genes. The gene ‘i’ is recessive and it doesn’t participate in formation of any antigen. Interaction of these alleles decides a particular blood group in a particular person.

Immunity and Blood Groups Long Answer Type Questions

Question 43:
Explain the structure of antibodies?
Answer:
Antibody is in the shape of Y and is made up of 4 structural units. One unit is heavier and bigger and is termed as ‘H’ while another unit is lighter and smaller chain of polypeptides and is terms as ‘L’. A heavier and a lighter chain make a HL dimer. Both the chains are connected by disulphide bond. The H and L chains in each half are also joined together by disulphide bond. Each heavier chain is composed of 440 amino acids and each lighter chain is composed of 220 amino acids.

Each heavier and lighter chain is divided into two parts:

(a) Variable Portion: This part reacts with antigen and is present towards NH2 part of the chain. This is also called Fab portion.
(b) Constant Portion: This part is towards COOH part of the chain and is called Fc portion. In most of the antigen, the arms of Y-shape have flexible origins which are called hinge. Due to flexibility of hinge, the variable portion is able react with molecules in antigen.

Question 44:
Explain erythroblastosis  foetalis.
Answer:
A case of Rh incompatibility is seen in pregnancy if Rh negative mother is pregnant with Rh positive child. During the first pregnancy of Rh negative mother with Rh positive child, the mother’s body develops IgG antibodies because mother’s blood gets mixed up with foetal blood during child birth. The birth of the first child is normal. Complications develop if the second child is also Rh positive. The Rh antibodies in mother’s blood react with Rh factor in foetal blood. This results in destruction of RBCs in foetus and may result in death of the child. If the child is born he/she is very weak and suffers from hepatitis. This condition is called erythroblastosis foetalis. To prevent this, the mother is given a vaccine of anti IgG antibody (anti Rh. D) within 24 hours of birth of the first child. These are called Rhogam antibodies.

Question 45:
Explain the process of blood transfusion.
Answer:
Process of Blood Transfusion:

A. Blood Collection:

  • Thorough health checkup of donor.
  • Blood is collected in sterilized anticoagulant containing pouch with the help of a cannula.
  • Collected blood is stored at low temperature.
  • Blood is checked for any infection like hepatitis, HIV, etc. and is also checked for ABO grouping and Rh factor.

Blood Transfusion:

  • Donor’s blood is matched with recipient’s blood for ABO grouping and Rh factor.
  • Stored blood is taken out of refrigerator about 30 minutes before actual transfusion.
  • Blood transfused intravenously and the process takes about 4 hours.
  • The recipient is continuously monitored for any untoward reaction.

Question 46:
What is organ donation? Explain its  significance.
Answer:
Organ donation has been highly useful in saving many lives. Organs from a live donor or from a dead donor can be successfully transplanted in a needy patient. A live donor can donate kidney, liver and bone marrow. Many organs can be used for transplantation from a dead body. Organs of a brain dead person can be harvested for transplantation. Now-a-days, organs from road accident victims are utilized for this purpose. For this, consent of the dead person’s relatives is mandatory. In our country, there is a huge waiting list of patients who need organs from donors.

Significance of Organ Donation:

  • Many patients are in urgent need of organ transplant.
  • Thousands die for lack of suitable donor.
  • Organs of many brain dead patients remain unutilized and go waste.
  • There is lack of awareness about organ donation.
  • Huge gap in demand and supply gives rise to illegal racket of organ transplant.

Question 47:
Explain the importance of inheritance  of blood groups.
Answer:
Inheritance of blood groups has many uses like in settling disputes related to parentage of a child, in blood transfusion, in treating haemophilia patient, etc.

The given diagrams illustrate an example of how parentage of a child can be confirmed. Let us assume that a child’s blood group is B. In case of first couple, husband’s blood group is O and wife’s blood group is AB. In case of second couple, husband’s blood group is A and wife’s blood group is B. The diagram shows possible blood groups in child from each couple. It clearly shows that a child with blood group B is possible only in case of the first couple.

Immunity and Blood Groups Additional Questions Solved

I. Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1:
An antibody is made up of which  of the following?
(a) Protein
(b) Carbohydrate
(c) Lipid
(d) Vitamins
Answer:
(a) Protein

Question 2:
An antigen is composed of which of the following?
(a) Protein
(b) Polysaccharide
(c) Lipid
(d) Any of these
Answer:
(d) Any of these

Question 3:
Antigenic determinant is a chain of  how many amino acids?
(a) 2 – 4
(b) 4 – 6
(c) 6 – 8
(d) More than 10
Answer:
(c) 6 – 8

Question 4:
What is antigenic valency in most of the bacteria?
(a) 10
(b) 50
(c) 70
(d) More than 100
Answer:
(d) More than 100

Question 5:
Which antibody takes part in  allergic reactions?
(a) IgE
(b) IgD
(c) IgA
(d) IgG
Answer:
(a) IgE

Question 6:
How many types of antigen are present on surface of RBCs?
(a) One
(b) Two
(c) Three
(d) Four
Answer:
(b) Two

Question 7:
Rh factor was first discovered in  which mammal?
(a) Human
(b) Tiger
(c) Monkey
(d) Dog
Answer:
(c) Monkey

Question 8:
Which blood group is universal acceptor?
(a) A
(b) B
(c) AB
(d) O
Answer:
(c) AB

Question 9:
What is the percentage of Rh  negative blood group in world population?
(a) 85%
(b) 65%
(c) 45%
(d) 15%
Answer:
(d) 15%

Question 10:
Increased level of bilirubin in blood mainly affects which organ?
(a) Liver
(b) Spleen
(c) Kidney
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question 11:
Which of the following patients  will need blood transfusion?
(a) Diabetes patient
(b) Patient with low blood platelet
(c) Arthritis patient
(d) Asthma patient
Answer:
(b) Patient with low blood platelet

Immunity and Blood Groups Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1:
Define immunity.
Answer:
The ability of our body to fight against diseases is called immunity,

Question 2:
What is immunology?
Answer:
The branch of science which deals with the system and functions in body to fight against germs is called immunology.

Question 3:
What is innate immunity?
Answer:
The immunity which is inborn in a person is called innate immunity.

Question 4:
What is acquired immunity?
Answer:
The type of immunity which is acquired by the body in response to a specific germ is called acquired immunity.

Question 5:
What is active immunity?
Answer:
When body proactively prepares an antibody  against a specific antigen, it is called active immunity.

Question 6:
What is blood transfusion?
Answer:
The method of receiving blood into one’s circulatory system is called blood transfusion.

Question 7:
What is allogenic transfusion?
Answer:
When blood from another person is used for transfusion, it is called allogenic transfusion.

Question 8:
What is autogenic transfusion?
Answer:
When self blood is used for  transfusion, it is called autogenic transfusion.

Immunity and Blood Groups Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1:
What are the different types of acquired immunity?
Answer:
Following are two types of acquired immunity:

(a) Active Immunity: When body proactively prepares an antibody against a specific antigen, it is called active immunity.
(b) Passive Immunity: In this case, the body does not make any antibody. The antibody is specially inoculated in the body from outside. This is usually seen in case vaccination against some diseases, e.g. vaccination against tetanus.

Question 2:
Write a short note on antigen.
Answer:
The germ or foreign material which enters the body and converts B-lymphocytes into antibody producing plasma cells and specifically interacts with that antibody is called an antigen. Antigens are generally those external substances which have molecular weight more than 6000 Dalton. Sometimes, antigens can be produced inside the body, e.g. in case of viral infection or by cancerous cells.

Question 3:
What do you understand by  valency of antigen?
Answer:
A chain of about 6 to 8 amino acids in a protein work as antigenic determinant. A protein may have many antigenic determinants. Number of antigenic determinant in a protein is called the valency of antigen. In most of the bacteria, the antigenic valency can be 100 or even more.

Question 4:
Which are the steps of destruction of antigen?
Answer:
Following are the four steps of destruction of antigen:

(a) Differentiation between internal and external antigens.
(b) Formation of plasma cells by B-lymphocyte cells according to the antigenic determinant present on external antigen.
(c) Formation of specific antibodies by plasma cells.
(d) Destruction of antigen by antigen- antibody reaction and by cell mediated immunity (CMI).

Question 5:
Write a short note on antibody.
Answer:
The protein which is produced by B-lymphocytes in response to an antigen and can specifically interact with the antigen. This interaction depends on specific structure of antigen and is at the root of immune system. In other words, antibody-antigen reaction forms the basis of immune system. Antigen is also called immunoglobin (Ig), Antibodies are gamma globulin (γ-globulin) protein produced by plasma cells. The part of antibody which reacts with antigen is called paratope.

Question 6:
Briefly explain Rh incompatibility in blood transfusion.
Answer:
Rh factor matching is also important for blood transfusion. If Rh positive blood is transfused to an Rh negative person then recipient’s body produces IgG antibodies. These antibodies destroy RBCs by agglutination. This results in increased levels of bilirubin in blood which adveresely affects the liver and spleen. As a result, the person dies due to renal failure.

Question 7:
Write some cases when a person may need blood transfusion.
Answer:
Following cases may need blood transfusion:

  • In case of accident and excess bleeding.
  • Severe shortage of blood in body.
  • During a surgery.
  • Low platelets count in blood.
  • Patient of haemophilia.
  • Patient of sickle cell anemia.

Immunity and Blood Groups Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1:
Explain innate  immunity.
Answer:
This type of immunity is inborn. This is also called general or natural immunity. This type of immunity does not give any special protection against any specific germ rather works against all the antigens in the same way. Hence, it is called general immunity. Following factors facilitate working of innate immunity:

  1. Physical Barriers: Physical barriers prevent the entry of germs physically. For example, skin prevents the entry of many germs and thus works as the first
    line of defence. Cilia, in many organs, help in keeping off the germs or other harmful materials.
  2. Chemical Barriers: Some germs are warded off by means of chemical barriers. For example, hydrochloric acid in stomach kills any germ in food.
  3. Cellular Barriers: Many special cells eat away germs, e.g. macrophages, neutrophils, etc.
  4. Inflammation: Inflammation and fever also work against germ. The high temperature during fever and inflammation kill the germs.

Question 2:
Explain acquired  immunity.
Answer:
This type of immunity is acquired by the body in response to a specific germ. The body develops a specific antibody against
a specific antigen and learns to fight that antigen. It remembers and can fight any future onslaught of a specific germ. This action initiates cell mediated immunity in the body. There are two types of active immunity which are as follows:

  1. Active Immunity: When body proactively prepares an antibody against a specific antigen, it is called active immunity.
  2. Passive Immunity: In this case, the body does not make any antibody. The antibody is specially inoculated in the body from outside. This is usually seen in case of vaccination against some diseases, e.g. vaccination against tetanus.

Question 3:
With the help of a table, show different types of  antibody and their characteristics.
Answer:

Types of Antibodies
Type Polypeptide chain present Special comment
IgG Gamma (γ) Has maximum concentration in serum. Is only antibody which can cross placenta and reach the embryo.
IgM Mu (μ) Is pentameric structure and is the first antibody produced after reaction with antigen.
IgA Alpha (α) Is only antibody present in mother’s milk.
IgE Epsilon (ε) Mainly acts on basophils and mast cells and participates in allergic reactions.
IgD Delta (δ) Signal the B cells to be activated for defence of the body.

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